1. Identity, Relationship Building, and Social Groups

    Identity and interpersonal relationships are central concepts within social media. The Social Penetration Theory by Altman and Taylor identifies phases of relationships building, and discusses layers of identity that may be revealed through this process.

    If it is the case that humans have a hierarchy of social groups with fixed sizes, how does these phases of relationship building and layers of identity relate to those social groups?

    Phases of Relationship Building

    1. Orientation stage. At this stage we play safe with small talk and simple, harmless clichés, following standards of social desirability and norms of appropriateness.

    2. Exploratory affective stage. This is where we start to reveal ourselves, express personal attitudes about moderate topics, but we are not yet comfortable to lay ourselves bare. This is the stage of casual friendship, and many relationships do not go past this stage.

    3. Affective stage. We finally start to talk about private and personal matters. This stage allows for intimacy as well as criticism and arguments.

    4. Stable stage. The relationship has reached a plateau where the individuals know each other well enough to each predict the emotional reactions of the other person.

    5. Depenetration. When the costs of the relationship exceed the benefits the relationship starts to break down. This involves a withdrawal of disclosure and may lead to the termination of the relationship.

    Layers of Identity

    Superficial Layer. The outer layer is the public self, and is accessible to anyone who is interested. This layer includes publicly available information that describes who you are, including height, weight, gender, and other details that can easily be observed, like preference in music, clothes, foods, etc.

    Semi-private Layer. Below the superficial layer is a more semi-private layer that includes information and attitudes that a person reveals only to some people, like beliefs, faith, prejudices, and general relationship information.

    Inner Core. The inner core is a person’s unique private domain which is invisible to the world. This layer contains the person’s values, self-concepts, unresolved conflicts and deeply felt emotions, and has a significant impact on the areas of their life.

    How does Relationship Phases and Identity Layers relate to Social Groups?



    I believe that the combinations of these two social frameworks may be used to inform development of social technology, providing better support for identity and privacy management as well as group and network development and support.